When a person begins to talk about the meaning of life, the question arises first of all: “And who are you?”Victor Frankl dates back to those few thinkers, whose best proof of the rightness of them is their own life.
Even in his school years, he became interested in the question of the meaning of human life;Having received the specialty of a psychiatrist, he began to develop methods that allow people to cope with the loss of the meaning of life, which leads to neurosis, psychoses, suicides, alcoholism and drug addiction. During the Second World War, he shared the fate of millions of European Jews, having spent three and a half years in Nazi concentration camps. He not only survived, but for six years after the release he released about 10 books in which he developed the doctrine of the desire for meaning as the main driving force of human life. The experience of the concentration camp showed: the greatest chances to survive had not those who were very good for their good health, but who had something to live for.
the 1960s, the teachings of Francla, called by him “logotherapy”, gained worldwide fame. His books, translated into dozens of languages, were published by multimillion -dollar circulations, and sometimes thousands of listeners gathered public lectures (once I myself was this witness). I had the happiness of being familiar with this amazing person, to correspond with him, to translate his books and oral performances when he visited Moscow in 1986 and 1992. Infectable inner light, crystal clarity and the mecrosiness of his thoughts and their verbal expression were combined in him with amazing attentiveness to the people around him.
- March 26, 1905: Born in Vienna.
- 1918-1924: from the gymnasium is fond of natural science, psychology and psychoanalysis. Enters into correspondence with Freud, makes public reports on the meaning of life.
- 1925-1927: departs from psychoanalysis and is fond of adler’s individual psychology.
- 1926-1937: Actively engaged in social activities, based on a popular journal and a network of consultations in Austria and Germany for psychological assistance in self-determination of high school students-the number of suicides in this age group has radically decreased.
- 1930-1942: Having received a diploma of a psychotherapist, he works in a specialty in Vienna clinics.
- September 1942 – April 1945: Conclusion in the concentration camps of Terezienstadt, Auschwitz (Auschwitz), Kaufering III and Turkhaim. His parents, wife and brother die in concentration camps.
- 1945-1970: head physician of the neurological department of the Vienna multidisciplinary clinic.
- 1949: receives the degree of Doctor of Philosophy.
- 1961-1990: Actively lectures around the world. Receives honorary doctoral degrees 28 universities.
- 1986 and 1992: He makes lectures in Moscow, at Moscow State University.
- 1996: Last lecture at the University of Vienna.
- September 2, 1997: I died in Vienna.
Five keys to understanding
The person is multidimensional
“A person is more than the psyche;Man is a spirit “. In addition to our biological nature, embodied in our body, and a mental organization embodied in our psyche, a person has another dimension of existence – spiritual, or semantic. This is different from other creatures. It is at this level, revealing to the world of meanings, we, it turns out, are able to overcome those restrictions and strict causal relationships that are detected at lower levels.
A person strives for meaning
“Human being is always oriented outside, on something or on someone-on the meaning that must be implemented, or to another person, to whom we are drawn with love”. We do not construct meanings in our heads, we find them in the world. Finding meaning is a “perception of the possibility against the background of reality”.
The person is free
“The need and freedom are not localized at the same level;Freedom rises, built on any need “. Freedom is not absolute, it does not cancel determinism, but adds a new dimension, allowing you to relate to something that cannot be avoided. In particular, Frankl says that a person is free in relation to his drives, heredity, as well as the influences of the social and household environment.
The person is responsible
“One cannot recognize a person free without recognizing him at the same time responsible”. First of all, we are responsible for finding and realizing our unique meaning and values. Conscience is our “body of meaning”, it is before it that we are responsible for our actions. But a religious person goes a step further;For him, conscience is a direct way to communicate with God, before which he eventually has to answer for his life.
The meaning can always be found
“The meaning is in principle available to any person, regardless of gender, age, intelligence, education, character, environment and religious beliefs”. Although the meaning of each person and in every situation is unique, there are generalized values – a kind of typical variants of meaning. Frankl distinguishes three of their types: the values of creativity (creation, introducing something to the world);the values of the experience (receiving something from the world, for example, love or aesthetic impressions);Relationship values (changing the attitude to what we cannot change). These three search routes allow you to gain meaning even in the most hopeless situation, for example in a concentration camp – the life experience and clinical practice of Frankclay gave a lot of confirmation of this.